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Building a Gender-Sensitive Monitoring and Evaluation System

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The purpose of this article is to present a gender-sensitive framework for monitoring and evaluating public policies and programs. It emphasizes the importance of using analytical categories that align with the policies being evaluated. These analytical elements ensure recognition of gender differences and diversity within each gender group.

In recent years, the importance of gender perspectives in public policies and programs has gained widespread recognition. This involves rethinking traditional practices and modalities of the state and incorporating gender equity perspectives into government management. Monitoring and evaluation are crucial in improving management processes and implementing technical standards in public interventions.

Special Measures to Promote Gender Equality When inequalities occur, it is due to social and cultural practices, not innate biological differences. Treatment of sexes can differ, indirectly discriminating against one gender in accessing resources and abilities. Steps should be taken to treat the disadvantaged in the same way as sexual, racial, and cultural minority groups. Regulations are in place to prohibit offenses and allow positive discrimination. Policies, programs, training, and selection criteria are developed to help disadvantaged groups.

Gender and Sex refers to biological and social differences between women and men. Gender roles and expectations can be changed, while sex cannot. A gender-sensitive M&A approach can address differences and promote equality. It benefits both women and men by including everyone and increasing effectiveness. (Unger, 2020)(Lips, 2020)

There are three key concepts that should be understood before an organization can develop a comprehensive gender mainstreaming strategy:

1. Gender and Sex 2. Special Measures to Promote Gender Equality 3. Training as a Key Gender Equality Strategy

Gender considerations should be used in methodological options for indicators and data collection. Consider sex-disaggregated data, life-cycle issues, and direct vs proxy indicators. Use appropriate sampling methods, participatory rural appraisal tools, and specific methodologies. Assess data quality and issue gender-specific terms of reference. Provide training on gender analysis and data collection. Validate key findings with stakeholders for accuracy.

To ensure effective M&E, integrate monitoring info systems into project processes. Gender-responsive systems measure well-being, roles, benefits, and decision-making participation of women and men. Consider gender-related changes when selecting indicators and data collection methods. (Sathyan & Sam, 2022)

Topics covered: spatial considerations, context, M&E question’s role, prior information, and use of qualitative data. Recommendations are followed by a brief discussion on gender and data analysis, including the politics and importance of gender relations, and drawing policy conclusions from conditional variables. (Okafor, 2021)(Ba, 2021)(Danforth et al.2023)(Roberton & Sawadogo-Lewis, 2022)

This chapter provides practical suggestions for analyzing and interpreting gender-disaggregated data. It focuses on differential outcomes and the use of gender-disaggregated analyses in monitoring and evaluation. The chapter gives recommendations for frugal gender researchers with limited time and resources.

Businesses entering new markets, UN agencies, and donor organizations need effective monitoring and evaluation systems for market development. M&E contributes to entrepreneurship by focusing on improving firm performance and stimulating business creation. Gender considerations should be integrated, as interventions affect men and women differently. How can this be done? (Naradda et al.2020)

Using a gender-sensitive approach to collect and analyze gender-disaggregated data and gender-specific information is essential for promoting gender equality. This section introduces tools and techniques for incorporating gender issues into M&E processes. The aim is to ensure that M&E systems collect the information needed to assess if a project addresses gender issues and benefits men and women equally. This includes integrating gender-disaggregated indicators and targeting the specific needs of men and women in data collection.


  • Unger, R. (2020). Representations: Social constructions of gender. [HTML]
  • Lips, H. M. (2020). Sex and gender: An introduction. [HTML]
  • Sathyan, A. R. & Sam, A. S. (2022). Gender Sensitive Monitoring and Evaluation: Prospects and Challenges. Engendering Agricultural Development. [HTML]
  • Okafor, A. E. (2021). Influence of monitoring and evaluation system on the performance of projects. Journal of Social Science and Humanities Research.
  • Ba, A. (2021). How to measure monitoring and evaluation system effectiveness?. African Evaluation Journal.
  • Danforth, K., Ahmad, A. M., Blanchet, K., Khalid, M., Means, A. R., Memirie, S. T., … & Watkins, D. (2023). Monitoring and evaluating the implementation of essential packages of health services. BMJ global health, 8(Suppl 1), e010726.
  • Roberton, T. & Sawadogo-Lewis, T. (2022). Building coherent monitoring and evaluation plans with the Evaluation Planning Tool for global health. Global health action.
  • Naradda Gamage, S. K., Ekanayake, E. M. S., Abeyrathne, G. A. K. N. J., Prasanna, R. P. I. R., Jayasundara, J. M. S. B., & Rajapakshe, P. S. K. (2020). A review of global challenges and survival strategies of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Economies, 8(4), 79.

1 Comment

  • Mayas

    July 11, 2024 - 7:55 pm

    Thanks Insight for this comprehensive article

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